Launched two years in the past, NASA’s Osiris-Rex spacecraft arrives at the asteroid Bennu on Monday. Its project is to survey the asteroid forward of retrieving pristine bits of the sun machine from the rock’s floor after which bringing them again to Earth within the years forward.
When does Osiris-Rex arrive at Bennu, and the way can I watch it?
About midday on Monday, Eastern Time. NASA Television will broadcast protection of the arriving from 11:45 a.m. to 12:15 p.m.
What does NASA imply by way of “arrive?” Are we there but?
Osiris-Rex’s arrival at Bennu isn’t just like the touchdown of NASA’s InSight spacecraft in a single piece at the floor of Mars final Monday. (Happily, it landed flawlessly.)
By distinction, Osiris-Rex is pulling in at a modest velocity, and the instant of arrival is a slightly arbitrary designation. The spacecraft began the method segment of its project in August when it was once 1.2 million miles from Bennu. On Monday, it’s going to be 12 miles away, even if nonetheless too some distance away to orbit the asteroid.
There will have to be no drama. It will have to be simply a clean transition to the following segment of the project.
What occurs subsequent?
Osiris-Rex will make a collection of passes over the asteroid at a vary of four.three miles for an preliminary survey to higher decide its mass, price of spin and form.
In January, the spacecraft gets nearer to Bennu, between zero.nine and 1.2 miles, and be drawn into orbit across the asteroid. It will then spend greater than a yr acting reconnaissance of Bennu sooner than making an attempt to bop off the skin and gather a pattern of the asteroid in mid-2020.
What are you able to inform me about Bennu?
Bennu, came upon in 1999, is a carbon-rich, virtually black asteroid, about 1,600 toes extensive. (That compares to the Empire State Building, which is 1,454 toes tall together with the antenna at the highest.) Scientists imagine that it’s a conglomeration of leftovers from the formation of the sun machine, in large part unchanged during the last four.five billion years.
Bennu is classified as a near-Earth asteroid, and scientists say there’s a small probability it would slam into Earth, however now not till the 22nd century if it occurs at all. (It isn’t sufficiently big to motive planet-wide extinctions, however it will be catastrophic at the purpose of have an effect on.)
What are scientists hoping to be told from Bennu?
By finding out a primitive asteroid, scientists hope to get a higher concept of what was once round within the sun machine’s earliest days.
Dante Lauretta, the main investigator of Osiris-Rex, mentioned he was once specifically thinking about gleaning details about natural molecules like amino acids, the development blocks of proteins discovered on Earth which are additionally recognized to exist in interstellar house. One query is whether or not Bennu accommodates upper concentrations of the 20 amino acids utilized by varieties of lifestyles on Earth. That would counsel the universe favors those amino acids and now not dozens of others, even in nonbiological chemical reactions.
Life on Earth additionally solely makes use of so-called “left-handed” amino acids and now not the replicate, right-handed variations. Study of the Bennu subject material may assist give an explanation for whether or not nonbiological chemical reactions in house driven lifestyles towards left-handed molecules or whether or not that shift befell later when lifestyles arose.
How will Osiris-Rex clutch a piece of Bennu?
In July 2020, the spacecraft, concerning the dimension of a recreation application car, is scheduled to slowly descend and soar off the skin like a pogo stick at a delicate tempo of a quarter-mile consistent with hour. A sampling head, which looks as if an automotive air filter out, will shoot a burst of nitrogen to kick up dust and small rocks right through the 3 to 5 seconds it’s involved with the skin.
The objective is to assemble at least a couple of oz. of subject material and in all probability up to four.four kilos. The spacecraft carries sufficient nitrogen to try to extract subject material 3 times if essential.
Why does it take see you later to assemble a pattern and go back to Earth?
A sooner project would have required a higher spacecraft sporting extra gas — costlier than the $800 million value of Osiris-Rex. Instead, the spacecraft took a extra environment friendly however longer trajectory, benefiting from a flyby of Earth final yr to fling it on a trail to intersect Bennu. Scientists additionally need to learn about Bennu is as a lot element as they may be able to sooner than heading again to Earth.
After departing Bennu in 2021, Osiris-Rex will go by way of Earth in September 2023, losing off a tablet with the samples that may land by the use of parachute in a Utah wasteland.
Haven’t different spacecraft explored asteroids already? What’s so particular about Osiris-Rex?
Quite a few spacecraft have made flybys of asteroids, starting with NASA’s Galileo spacecraft, which handed inside 1,000 miles of the asteroid Gaspra in 1991 en path to Jupiter. NASA’s NEAR Shoemaker (NEAR is brief for Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) went into orbit across the near-Earth asteroid Eros in 2000. Even despite the fact that it was once now not designed to land at the asteroid, NEAR Shoemaker did simply that during 2001 and persisted running for 2 weeks from the skin of Eros.
The Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa amassed some mud samples from an asteroid and returned them in Earth in 2005. A follow-up project, Hayabusa2 is, like Osiris-Rex, headed to a carbon-rich asteroid and is scheduled to convey its samples again to Earth in 2020.
However, now not all asteroids are alike, and Osiris-Rex is anticipated to convey a lot more rock and mud again than the Japanese missions. Comparing knowledge from other asteroids will create a fuller image of what the early sun machine was once like.
Is this essentially the most contorted identify of a NASA project ever?
Dr. Lauretta mentioned that as he jotted some topics of the clinical targets — origins, spectroscopy, sources and safety — he had many of the letters of Osiris, the Egyptian god who was once the lord of the underworld however who additionally represented the seeds of regeneration to new lifestyles.
“It was the dual nature of the Osiris myth,” Dr. Lauretta mentioned a couple of years in the past sooner than release. “I had to buy a couple of vowels.”
With some finagling, he got here up with Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer.